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The 

Candy Making Industry 
in Philadelphia 




ISSUED BY 

THE EDUCATIONAL COMMITTEE 

OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 






TX79| 
.T5 



PRESENTED TO THE 
SCHOOLS OF PHILADELPHIA 




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>UP.l liv lln- 



Educational Pamphlet No. i< issued by lln- Educational Conmittee 
(.1 ilie Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce. 



Copyright. 1417. Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce. 



OCT -8 1917 
©CI.A473885 



The Candy-Making Industry in Philadelphia 

By Elhvood B. Chapman 
History 

WHO would dream as he leaves the confectionery store with the 
box of chocolates under his arm that the very ends of the 
earth had been ransacked for these sweets? Good Mother 
Nature must have given thought to the "sweet tooth" of her chil- 
dren when she stored her larder so abundantly with good things — 
the sugar cane, the sugar maple, the sugar beet, honey everywhere, 
the cocoa bean and the hundreds of flavors that add to the tooth- 
some qualities of confectionery: fruits, nuts, vanilla beans, gums, 
resins and spices. 

From the very early ages man seems to have had a taste for 
sweets; honey was the first sweet substance known. We are all 
familiar with the Biblical reference, "A land flowing with milk and 
honey"; even before the Biblical era, crude confections in some 
form were made by mixing honey with fruits. 

Crystallized sugar is now the basis of all confectionery. It has 
been in use since the early days of the Christian era, the first refer- 
ence to it appearing 300 A. D. 

Sugar cane was first discovered growing wild in India: Arabs 
and Egyptians in these early days prepared candy by crystallizing 
sugar from the juice of the cane. It was first introduced into 
Europe by the Crusaders, who brought it with them from the Holy 
Land. Sugar was then used principally by apothecaries to disguise 
the taste of drugs, and it was only about two hundred years ago that 
the confectionery industry began to develop independently of its 
medicinal association. The growth of the industry was very slow : 
it is only within the last half century that it has begun to assume 
larger proportions. 

Early Philadelphia Candy Makers 
The earliest mention that is made of a confectioner in Philadel- 
phia was in 1765; Abraham Smith conducted a fruit business at 
that time and sold a few simple candies. In 1800 an advertisement 
of Bosse's Ice Cream House, Germantown, appeared in the "Aurora," 
mder date of July 22; syrups, cakes, wines, jellies and a few con- 
fections were sold. Irving, in "Salmagundi," in the stranger in 
Pennsylvania, tells how molasses candy was made in Philadelphia 



The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 



in 1807. These are the only references that can be found to the 
trade prior to 1816. 

The history of the business in Philadelphia really dates back 
to this year, just one century ago; prior to 1818 but little is known 
of the local trade with the exception of the few instances cited. At 
that date there were published the names of twenty confectioners in 
this city ; the one who seems to have been most prominently known 
among these was Sebastian Henrion, who was then located at 15 
S. 4th Street, afterwards at 118 High Street (Market Street). He 
retired in 1844, being succeeded by the firm of Henrion & Chauveau : 
this latter firm continued until 1857. Others who obtained prom- 
inence at this time were Paul Lajus, N. E. cor. 3rd & High Streets, 
afterwards at 86 High Street, and Jeffrey Chew, 262, and later 301, 
S. 5th Street; the former continued in business until 1841 and the 
latter until 1848. In 1833 George Miller commenced business and 
continued until the time of his death. 

All of these firms and their successors have disappeared, the 
only living representative of any of them who is at present identified 
with the industry is A. J. Chauveau, now engaged in the manu- 
facture of confectioners' novelties. Mr. Chauveau has in his posses- 
sion what is probably the oldest piece of candy in existence in this 
country, a piece of conserve made about 1845. Crude though it 
seems, it doubtless brought joy to the heart of some appreciative 
maiden. 




Piece of candy made about 
1S45 



Fancy paper in which 
it was wrapped 



Prior to 1845 there were few attempts to manufacture high- 
grade confectionery, the local dealers contenting themselves with 
molasses candies, stick candies and sugar plums of their own manu- 
facture ; the better grades being imported, principally from France. 
In the early 40's, Sebastian Henrion made the first Cream Choco- 
lates and Jim Crows, the latter, which were quite black, being 
named after a troupe of colored minstrels then playing. 



The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 



Firms Engaged in the Industry To-day 

Among the names prominently identified with this industry 
to-day are those of Whitman's, Huyler's, Laurent, Maron and Wil- 
bur. There are also a number of large manufacturers who have no 
retail stores, but sell their product to the smaller confectioners ; 
among those might be mentioned Croft and Allen, Brandle and 
Smith Company, E. G. Whitman, Quaker City Chocolate and Con- 
fectionery Company, Philip Wunderle, John Miller & Son, Manu- 
facturing Company of America, and Smith and Peters. 

Two firms have attracted attention during the last few years 
through the operation of chain stores for the sale of inexpensive 
candies; they are Montague and Company, and the Gates Candy 
Company. 

Huyler's factory and principal retail stores are in New York, 
where they were established in 1874. The firm operates a chain of 
sixty-one stores throughout the country: these are recognized 
everywhere by the familiar red curtain, with its inscription familiar 
to all candy-lovers, "Old-fashioned Molasses Candy, fresh every 
hour." The Philadelphia store, at 1320 Chestnut Street, was 
opened in 1886. 

The business of Laurent & Maron was started in the year 1850 
on 4th Street above Arch, and five years later removed to the N. W. 
cor. 6th and Arch Streets. Later the partnership was dissolved, 
and was succeeded by F. Laurent & Sons. In 1878 they removed 
to 1306 Chestnut, subsequently to 1308 Chestnut, their present 
location. During building operations in 1909 this firm occupied at 
different times during the first six months of the year, 1306, 1308 
and 1310 Chestnut Street, being closed only two hours during 
removal. 

Alfred Maron continued business alone at 830 Walnut street, 
and in 1874 succeeded Charles Penas, who came to this country 
from France in the later 50's. About five years later another store 
was opened at 1614 Chestnut Street, the two stores being operated 
together for six years. He died in 1914, being succeeded by his son, 
A. C. Maron. 

Samuel Croft was engaged in retail and jobbing confectionery 
business prior to 1868. In that year he formed a partnership with 
H. O. Wilbur, locating at 125 N. 2nd Street. Later this partnership 
was dissolved and two new firms succeeded them, H. O. Wilbur and 
Sons taking up the manufacture of cocoa and chocolate at 3rd and 
New Streets, and Croft and Allen the manufacture of a general line 
of confectionery in West Philadelphia. 



The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 










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1 







CANDY BOX < »F 1854 

The most remarkable evidence of the growth of confectionery 
industry in Philadelphia is the business of Whitman's, established 
in 1842 by Stephen F. Whitman. It outgrew its quarters and was 
removed in the early 60's to 1210 Market. After several other 
changes in location, the continued increase in output necessitated 
still larger quarters. In 1889 the business was therefore divided, 
the factory being removed to 6th and Cherry Streets, and the retail 
store to its present location at 1316 Chestnut Street. In 1906 the 
factory was removed to the large building, 411 to 421 Race Street, 
and with still further recent additions it now occupies the entire 
block on Race Street from 4th Street to Lawrence Street. 

To this firm is due the credit for the first attempt to pack con- 
fectionery in boxes ; this was in 1854, and from this small beginning 
has developed the wonderful system of to-day, candies being now 
packed in the most artistic manner in handsome boxes, some of 
which contain as much as ten pounds. 

Size of Industry and Present Importance 
Some idea may be gained of the rapid strides which the indus- 
try has made in Philadelphia within recent years when it is stated 
that from the twenty small stores in 1816. with their very limited 



The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 7 

production, it had grown in 1915 to 131 establishments, none with 
less than five employees, and from a volume of $766,000 in 1860 
it had increased to $7,398,651 in 1915. 

Process 

To trace the contents of a box of confections back to the sources 
of their ingredients, and then to follow, step by step, their shipment, 
their assembling and the various processes through which they go 
in the course of their manufacture, would require volumes. For 
our purpose here it will suffice to describe briefly the making of 
two or three typical pieces. 

Making Cream Chocolates 

Every one is familiar with the Cream Chocolate, which was 
one of the first to be made, but few could imagine the steps 
that are required to bring it to perfection. In the first place, 
to make the center, a quantity of sugar is placed in a large copper 
pan and sufficient water added to enable it to be melted quickly over 
heat ; after the sugar is dissolved, the process of boiling is continued 
for a sufficient length of time to evaporate a great deal of the excess 
water. When this is made in quantities of not over thirty or forty 
pounds, it is cooked in a shallow copper pan, about twenty-four 
inches in diameter, and during the process of boiling is stirred with 
a large wooden paddle. In the larger factories of to-day this process 
is mechanical, the copper pans being made of sufficient size to con- 
tain a whole barrel of sugar, and the stirring being done by rows 
of paddles attached to a power-driven axle in the center of the 
kettle. 

When the process of boiling as above described is ended, a 
heavy syrup is obtained. This is poured while still hot on a large 
cast-iron table, about five to six feet in diameter, with an edge 
about six inches high. This table is made with double walls, and is 
cooled by means of water circulating between the inner and outer 
wall. As the syrup cools gradually it is kept constantly in motion 
by pieces of iron, shaped somewhat similar to a plow-share, which 
are attached to arms driven from the center of the table and kept 
constantly revolving. This constant agitation prevents the forma- 
tion of large crystals of sugar, so that when the syrup is cooled and 
hardened and the process of crystallization has been completed the 
crystals are so minute as to be hardly noticeable. The heavy, 
viscous mass which results gives a soft, smooth feeling on the 
tongue when tasted, and hence derives its common name, "Cream." 
Under the old-fashioned methods, when cream was made in small 



The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 



quantities, it was poured on a large slab of marble hollowed out in 
the center, and while cooling was worked up by hand, two men 
standing on opposite sides of the marble slab, using large wooden 
paddles for this purpose. 

The next operation is the molding of this Cream into the 
proper shapes, to be covered with Chocolate. This is done in 
powdered starch: a shallow wooden tray is filled with very finely 
powdered corn-starch, which is leveled flush with the sides of the 
tray. A printing frame, consisting of a board to which are attached 
a number of rows of wooden molds, each one the size and shape of 
the cream center, is pressed firmly into the starch, and when with- 
drawn it leaves a number of depressions, in which the cream is to 
be molded. The cream is then melted, flavored with vanilla or 
other flavors, and poured into the depressions in the starch by 
means of a funnel ; the mouth of the funnel is closed by means of a 
short stick, which fits it closely. The candy maker moves rapidly 
from one depression to the next, allowing a small quantity of cream 
to flow into each depression by alternately opening and closing the 
end of the funnel. This is known as casting. 




starch-board 

Containing 126 cream centers. Printing frame above 



Some casters, after years of experience, become so expert that 
they can mold row after row of these cream centers as fast as it is 
possible to move the funnel from one depression to the next. These 
trays, when filled, are laid aside in tiers for several hours to allow 
the cream to cool and become sufficiently firm for handling. 



The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 



The Mogul Machine 

One of the greatest strides in the making of confectionery was 
the introduction, a number of years ago, of a machine known as the 
Mogul, which performs mechanically this operation of casting; one 
machine, attended by three men, being able to do the work formerly 
done by twelve to fifteen men. In one end of this machine the 
starch boards filled with the molded creams are placed, one 
at a time. They are then automatically emptied, the starch 




"" 



THE MOGUL. 

For refilling- and leveling trays, molding and casting. 

This machine empties the starch-boards, refills 

and levels them, then prints the starch, 

making molds in it, and fills these 

molds with sugar cream 

being separated from the creams and the latter delivered at one 
side of the machine. After this the starch is sifted through fine 
sieves to remove any small particles of sugar, and the board, which 
has been emptied, is refilled with starch, the top leveled, and 
delivered on an endless belt for the operation of printing and casting. 
As the starch tray moves along the endless belt, a printing 
board similar to the one described in the hand operation is pressed 
down upon it automatically, leaving row after row of depressions. 
It then moves one step further, coming directly underneath a large 
copper tank filled with melted cream, which is kept at the proper 
temperature by means of a steam-jacket. From the bottom of this 
tank extends a long row of tubes, each one directly above one of the 
depressions in the starch. Each of these tubes is fitted with a tiny 
pump, which, as the starch board moves under, automatically 
delivers a measured amount of the melted cream. The tray is then 
pushed a few inches further and another row filled. When the last 
row has been filled the tray is removed from the machine by the 
attendant and the next tray appears, ready to be filled in the same 
way. The cream centers, which have been separated from the 
starch, are then sent in large trays to the Chocolate Coating room. 



10 



The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 



Chocolate Coating 

The original method of chocolate coating, and one which is still 
in use for the finest grades of work, is entirely a hand process. The 
table for chocolate coating consists of a large square marble slab, 
accommodating four girls, one on each side. In the center is a 
kettle of chocolate, warmed by steam or electricity to a sufficient 
temperature to keep it soft. A small quantity of this chocolate is 




I ' I [OCOLATE-COATING MA RBLE 
Twenty-five of these, each accommodating- four girls, are placed in rows 

in the room 

ladled from the kettle and poured on the surface of the slab to cool. 
The operator watches this cooling process very closely, and when 
the correct temperature has been reached, which is determined 
simply by her delicate sense of touch, the cream is rolled in it until 
it is covered to a sufficient thickness. It is then placed on a tray to 



The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 



11 



harden. This operation requires an unusual degree of skill, for if 
the temperature is slightly high and the coating too soft, it will 
flow from the cream, leaving a very thin covering at the top and a 
very heavy "foot" at the bottom. On the other hand, if the coating 
is too cool when the operation is performed, the resultant chocolate 
will be rough and irregular, instead of leaving the smooth, glossy 
appearance which is so much desired. 

The process of stamping the manufacturer's name on the bot- 
tom of each chocolate is accomplished simply by placing each fin- 
ished piece, while still warm and soft, on tins or heavy papers hav- 
ing the name embossed on them at intervals. 

Another great stride in the manufacture of confectionery has 
been made in chocolate coating. The machine which accomplishes 
this is called the Enrober. In this process the centers are placed in 




THE ENROBER 
For coating chocolates 

rows on a moving belt, which carries them to the machine. Here 
they encounter a short belt of wire mesh, through which soft 
chocolate is being forced from underneath. As they pass over this, 
a coating of chocolate is applied to the bottom of each piece. The 
cream centers, thus coated, then move automatically to a third belt, 
which carries them to the next operation. They pass over a short 
section of wire mesh belting, above which is suspended a tank of 
chocolate coating kept warm by means of a steam-jacket. From 
the bottom of this tank a thin sheet of the chocolate flows con- 
tinuously, coating the tops and sides of the creams as they pass 
under. The surplus coating flows through the wire mesh into a 
pan beneath, from which it is automatically pumped again to the 
suspended tank. The finished chocolates then pass on to a fifth belt, 
to which are attached, at intervals, sheets of heavily waxed paper. 
As each of these is filled, it is removed by an attendant, placed in 
tiers on a movable truck, and carried to a cool room for the chocolate 
to harden. 



12 The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 

While the Enrober does excellent work, it is impossible to 
obtain the same degree of fineness and regularity as in handwork, 
and it is for this reason that the old method is still used for the 
finest grades of chocolates. 

The methods just described are typical of the manufacture of 
a large proportion of the goods which enter into the confectioner's 
assortment ; the variety of chocolates being obtained by substituting 
nuts, fruits, jellies, caramels, marshmallows, etc., for the cream 
centers first described. 

The Manufacture of Chocolate Coating 
The process of the manufacture of the chocolate coating itself 
is interesting and may be described quite briefly. Chocolate is 
obtained from the cocoa bean, the varieties most used being grown 
principally in South and Central America, the West Indies, Ceylon 
and Africa. These vary greatly in flavor, aroma and strength. To 
obtain the best results, various grades are combined, very much as 
is done with coffees. The pods in which the beans grow are about 
the size of a cocoanut, but they are removed from these pods before 
being shipped. When received by the confectioner they are first 
placed in huge revolving ovens over a slow fire and roasted to such a 
point as will bring out to the fullest extent the delightful aroma of 
chocolate. They are then coarsely ground, the hulls being separated 
from the bean itself. These broken beans, or nibs, as they are 
called, are then taken to the milling machine, in which they are 
ground very fine by being passed successively under heavy mills of 
stone or iron, somewhat similar to those used in the grinding of 
flour. Considerable heat is generated in this process, and the 
resultant mass is a brownish liquid of the consistency of molasses, 
known as "chocolate liquor." This is really a mixture of dry cocoa 
and the oil from the bean, which is known as cocoa butter. The 
cocoa is separated from the butter by means of a hydraulic press ; 
when finely powdered, it forms the basis of the beverage now in 
such extensive use. 

The chocolate liquor, above described, is mixed with powdered 
sugar and a small additional portion of cocoa butter in the melanger, 
then run repeatedly between heavy steel rolls to crush still further 
the fine particles in order to obtain the smoothness which is so 
much prized. In fine confectionery the chocolate is subjected to 
this process as high as sixteen to twenty times. It is these many 
operations, carried on with the greatest degree of care by skilful 
and high-priced workmen, that account for the difference in price 
between the choice grades of confectionery and those sold at lower 
prices. 



The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 



13 



The Jordan Almond 

Another interesting piece is the Jordan Almond. Who would 
think that nearly a full day is required to make the simple sugar- 
coated almond, with its smooth, hard covering? 

For this process a large revolving copper kettle is used, the 
outside encircled by steampipes; this is known as a "basin." The 
basin resembles a huge hollow cone, lying on one side, with the base, 
which is open, turned up. The cone is pivoted at its apex, thus 
revolving in nearly a horizontal plane. 




MAKING JORDAN ALMONDS 

Long rows of these basins face one another, the operator working 

between them. This shows only one row 

As the great basins start to revolve, one hundred pounds of 
almonds, thoroughly dry, are placed in each and steam is turned 
into the pipes. When the nuts are well heated, a ladle of hot syrup 
(sugar dissolved in water) is poured over them. The rotary motion 
of the basin causes the almonds to tumble over and over one another, 
thus distributing the syrup till each is covered with a thin film, 
about l-500th of an inch in thickness. When this is dry and hard, 



14 The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 

another ladle of syrup is added and then another, until slowly and 
laboriously the shell of sugar attains the desired thickness. The 
better grades have a comparatively thin coat, the cheaper ones 
much thicker. The various flavors and tints are obtained by add- 
ing, at the end, a ladle of colored and flavored syrup. 

Decorative Candy 

While machinery is used in almost every process of candy 
manufacture, there is one field in which it cannot compete with 
hand-made goods. This is the production of exquisite, hand-made 
pieces for decorating the dinner tables at banquets and state occa- 
sions. 




DECORATIVE BASKET 

Made entirely of Hard Candy 

The basket shown in the illustration was made by one of the 
leading Philadelphia confectioners. It represents hours of tedious 
work by two expert candymakers, being made of hard candy, 
worked while hot and soft into the desired shape. The basket is 
woven of long strands, about one-quarter of an inch in diameter. 
The flowers are built up petal by petal, each piece being deftly 
formed by itself and then fastened to the stem. The basket itself 
is filled with spun sugar, fine hairlike strands, in one soft mass, and 
in this are placed the fruits or ices to be served for dessert. 

Distribution 
In the confectionery business there are two very widely differ- 
ent means of distribution. 



The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 15 



In the first, the various kinds of chocolates and other candies 
are handled in bulk, being packed in five-pound boxes, or sometimes 
in pails. These are handled just like wheat or any other com- 
modity, and the identity of the manufacturer is lost before it 
reaches the consumer. They are generally sold through jobbers to 
the smaller retail confectioners, who market them as their own 
goods, in connection with certain lines which they themselves may 
manufacture. This method of distribution applies principally to 
the cheaper grades of candy, and also to those kinds which require 
a large plant and extensive equipment for their manufacture, such 
as chocolate coating, marshmallows, gum drops and pastes. In 
most instances, even the smallest confectioners manufacture the 
simpler goods, such as stick candy, molasses taffies, etc., and a great 
many get up their own lines of chocolates by making the centers 
and purchasing the chocolate coating with which to cover them. 

In the second method of distribution the goods are packed by 
the manufacturer himself in small boxes of varying sizes suitable 
for retail consumption, and in many instances in small cartons, 
retailing from five to twenty-five cents. These, too, are sold in 
some instances through jobbers, but in the case of higher-priced 
goods they are usually sent direct from the manufacturer to his 
retail agent. In this way it is possible to handle, even at a dis- 
tance, many perishable goods which otherwise could be sold only at 
the place of manufacture. To the firm of Whitman's belongs the 
credit for having been the first to pack confectionery in attractive 
boxes for widespread distribution. These are now shipped to all 
parts of the country, from Maine to Alaska, as well as to our 
insular possessions. 



^ OF CONG** 




4 635 757 A 



EDUCATIONAL PAMPHLETS 

ISSUED BY THE 

PHILADELPHIA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 



PURPOSE — To make Philadelphia's life, industry, history, and government 
known, understood, and appreciated by all its citizens. 



No. I Thrift — a short text-book 

No. 2 The Trust Companies of Philadelphia 

No. 3 The Rug and Carpet Industry of Philadelphia 

No. 4 The Locomotive Industry in Philadelphia 

No. 5 Truck Farming in Philadelphia 

No. 6 The Candy Making Industry in Philadelphia 

No. 7 Leather and Glazed Kid Industry in Philadelphia 

No. 8 Mills— Distribution in Philadelphia